Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel whose dysfunction leads to chronic bacterial and fungal airway infections via a pathophysiological cascade that is incompletely understood. Airway glands, which produce most airway mucus, do so in response to both acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). CF glands fail to secrete mucus in response to VIP, but do so in response to ACh. Because vagal cholinergic pathways still elicit strong gland mucus secretion in CF subjects, it is unclear whether VIP-stimulated, CFTR-dependent gland secretion participates in innate defense. It was recently hypothesized that airway intrinsic neurons, which express abundant VIP and ACh, are normally active and stimulate low-level gland mucus secretion that is a component of innate mucosal defenses. Here we show that low levels of VIP and ACh produced significant mucus secretion in human glands via strong synergistic interactions; synergy was lost in glands of CF patients. VIP/ACh synergy also existed in pig glands, where it was CFTR dependent, mediated by both Cl– and HCO3–, and clotrimazole sensitive. Loss of “housekeeping” gland mucus secretion in CF, in combination with demonstrated defects in surface epithelia, may play a role in the vulnerability of CF airways to bacterial infections.
Jae Young Choi, Nam Soo Joo, Mauri E. Krouse, Jin V. Wu, Robert C. Robbins, Juan P. Ianowski, John W. Hanrahan, Jeffrey J. Wine
Receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction via Gαq, and relaxation via Gαs, underlie the bronchospastic features of asthma and its treatment. Asthma models show increased ASM Gαi expression, considered the basis for the proasthmatic phenotypes of enhanced bronchial hyperreactivity to contraction mediated by M3-muscarinic receptors and diminished relaxation mediated by β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs). A causal effect between Gi expression and phenotype has not been established, nor have mechanisms whereby Gi modulates Gq/Gs signaling. To delineate isolated effects of altered Gi, transgenic mice were generated overexpressing Gαi2 or a Gαi2 peptide inhibitor in ASM. Unexpectedly, Gαi2 overexpression decreased contractility to methacholine, while Gαi2 inhibition enhanced contraction. These opposite phenotypes resulted from different crosstalk loci within the Gq signaling network: decreased phospholipase C and increased PKCα, respectively. Gαi2 overexpression decreased β2AR-mediated airway relaxation, while Gαi2 inhibition increased this response, consistent with physiologically relevant coupling of this receptor to both Gs and Gi. IL-13 transgenic mice (a model of asthma), which developed increased ASM Gαi, displayed marked increases in airway hyperresponsiveness when Gαi function was inhibited. Increased Gαi in asthma is therefore a double-edged sword: a compensatory event mitigating against bronchial hyperreactivity, but a mechanism that evokes β-agonist resistance. By selective intervention within these multipronged signaling modules, advantageous Gs/Gq activities could provide new asthma therapies.
Dennis W. McGraw, Jean M. Elwing, Kevin M. Fogel, Wayne C.H. Wang, Clare B. Glinka, Kathryn A. Mihlbachler, Marc E. Rothenberg, Stephen B. Liggett
Goblet cell hyperplasia and mucous hypersecretion contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present work, mouse SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) mRNA and protein were detected in subsets of epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi, and tracheal glands. SPDEF interacted with the C-terminal domain of thyroid transcription factor 1, activating transcription of genes expressed selectively in airway epithelial cells, including Sftpa, Scgb1a1, Foxj1, and Sox17. Expression of Spdef in the respiratory epithelium of adult transgenic mice caused goblet cell hyperplasia, inducing both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo, and stainined for both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo. SPDEF expression was increased at sites of goblet cell hyperplasia caused by IL-13 and dust mite allergen in a process that was dependent upon STAT-6. SPDEF was induced following intratracheal allergen exposure and after Th2 cytokine stimulation and was sufficient to cause goblet cell differentiation of Clara cells in vivo.
Kwon-Sik Park, Thomas R. Korfhagen, Michael D. Bruno, Joseph A. Kitzmiller, Huajing Wan, Susan E. Wert, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey, Gang Chen, Jeffrey A. Whitsett
The origin and turnover of connective tissue cells in adult human organs, including the lung, are not well understood. Here, studies of cells derived from human lung allografts demonstrate the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal cell population, which is locally resident in the human adult lung and has extended life span in vivo. Examination of plastic-adherent cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples obtained from 76 human lung transplant recipients revealed clonal proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in 62% (106 of 172) of samples. Immunophenotyping of these isolated cells demonstrated expression of vimentin and prolyl-4-hydroxylase, indicating a mesenchymal phenotype. Multiparametric flow cytometric analyses revealed expression of cell-surface proteins, CD73, CD90, and CD105, commonly found on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Hematopoietic lineage markers CD14, CD34, and CD45 were absent. Multipotency of these cells was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Cytogenetic analysis of cells from 7 sex-mismatched lung transplant recipients harvested up to 11 years after transplant revealed that 97.2% ± 2.1% expressed the sex genotype of the donor. The presence of MSCs of donor sex identity in lung allografts even years after transplantation provides what we believe to be the first evidence for connective tissue cell progenitors that reside locally within a postnatal, nonhematopoietic organ.
Vibha N. Lama, Lisa Smith, Linda Badri, Andrew Flint, Adin-Cristian Andrei, Susan Murray, Zhuo Wang, Hui Liao, Galen B. Toews, Paul H. Krebsbach, Marc Peters-Golden, David J. Pinsky, Fernando J. Martinez, Victor J. Thannickal
Aminoglycosides can readthrough premature termination codons (PTCs), permitting translation of full-length proteins. Previously we have found variable efficiency of readthrough in response to the aminoglycoside gentamicin among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, all carrying the W1282X nonsense mutation. Here we demonstrate that there are patients in whom the level of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) nonsense transcripts is markedly reduced, while in others it is significantly higher. Response to gentamicin was found only in patients with the higher level. We further investigated the possibility that the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) might vary among cells and hence governs the level of nonsense transcripts available for readthrough. Our results demonstrate differences in NMD efficiency of CFTR transcripts carrying the W1282X mutation among different epithelial cell lines derived from the same tissue. Variability was also found for 5 physiologic NMD substrates, RPL3, SC35 1.6 kb, SC35 1.7 kb, ASNS, and CARS. Importantly, our results demonstrate the existence of cells in which NMD of all transcripts was efficient and others in which the NMD was less efficient. Downregulation of NMD in cells carrying the W1282X mutation increased the level of CFTR nonsense transcripts and enhanced the CFTR chloride channel activity in response to gentamicin. Together our results suggest that the efficiency of NMD might vary and hence have an important role in governing the response to treatments aiming to promote readthrough of PTCs in many genetic diseases.
Liat Linde, Stephanie Boelz, Malka Nissim-Rafinia, Yifat S. Oren, Michael Wilschanski, Yasmin Yaacov, Dov Virgilis, Gabriele Neu-Yilik, Andreas E. Kulozik, Eitan Kerem, Batsheva Kerem
The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a cAMP-dependent chloride channel on the apical membrane of epithelia is well established. However, the processes by which CFTR is regulated on the cell surface are not clear. Here we report the identification of a protein-protein interaction between CFTR and the cytoskeletal filamin proteins. Using proteomic approaches, we identified filamins as proteins that associate with the extreme CFTR N terminus. Furthermore, we identified a disease-causing missense mutation in CFTR, serine 13 to phenylalanine (S13F), which disrupted this interaction. In cells, filamins tethered plasma membrane CFTR to the underlying actin network. This interaction stabilized CFTR at the cell surface and regulated the plasma membrane dynamics and confinement of the channel. In the absence of filamin binding, CFTR was internalized from the cell surface, where it prematurely accumulated in lysosomes and was ultimately degraded. Our data demonstrate what we believe to be a previously unrecognized role for the CFTR N terminus in the regulation of the plasma membrane stability and metabolic stability of CFTR. In addition, we elucidate the molecular defect associated with the S13F mutation.
William R. Thelin, Yun Chen, Martina Gentzsch, Silvia M. Kreda, Jennifer L. Sallee, Cameron O. Scarlett, Christoph H. Borchers, Ken Jacobson, M. Jackson Stutts, Sharon L. Milgram
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was originally described as a mucosal lymphoid organ in the lungs of some species. However, while the lungs of naive mice and humans typically lack BALT, pulmonary infection in mice leads to the development of inducible BALT (iBALT), which is located in peribronchial, perivascular, and interstitial areas throughout the lung. Here we investigated whether iBALT forms in patients with a variety of interstitial lung diseases. We show that while iBALT can be found in the lungs of patients suffering from multiple diseases, well-developed iBALT is most prevalent in patients with pulmonary complications of RA and Sjögren syndrome. In these patients, iBALT consisted of numerous B cell follicles containing germinal centers and follicular dendritic cells. A loosely defined T cell area surrounded the B cell follicles while lymphatics and high endothelial venules were found at the B cell/T cell interface. Increased expression of lymphoid-organizing chemokines, such as CXCL13 and CCL21, as well as molecules involved in the immunopathology of RA, such as B cell–activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), ICOS ligand, and lymphotoxin, correlated with more well-developed iBALT. Finally, the presence of iBALT correlated with tissue damage in the lungs of RA patients, suggesting that iBALT participates in local RA pathogenesis.
Javier Rangel-Moreno, Louise Hartson, Carmen Navarro, Miguel Gaxiola, Moises Selman, Troy D. Randall
Acute lung injury (ALI) causes high mortality, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Acid aspiration is a frequent cause of ALI, leading to neutrophil sequestration, increased permeability, and deterioration of gas exchange. We investigated the role of platelet-neutrophil interactions in a murine model of acid-induced ALI. Acid aspiration induced P-selectin–dependent platelet-neutrophil interactions in blood and in lung capillaries. Reducing circulating platelets or blocking P-selectin halted the development of ALI. Bone marrow chimeras showed that platelet, not endothelial, P-selectin was responsible for the injury. The interaction of platelets with neutrophils and endothelia was associated with TXA2 formation, with detrimental effects on permeability and tissue function. Activated platelets induced endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and increased neutrophil adhesion. Inhibition of platelet-neutrophil aggregation improved gas exchange, reduced neutrophil recruitment and permeability, and prolonged survival. The key findings were confirmed in a sepsis-induced model of ALI. These findings may translate into improved clinical treatments for ALI.
Alexander Zarbock, Kai Singbartl, Klaus Ley
TLRs have been studied extensively in the context of pathogen challenges, yet their role in the unchallenged lung is unknown. Given their direct interface with the external environment, TLRs in the lungs are prime candidates to respond to air constituents, namely particulates and oxygen. The mechanism whereby the lung maintains structural integrity in the face of constant ambient exposures is essential to our understanding of lung disease. Emphysema is characterized by gradual loss of lung elasticity and irreversible airspace enlargement, usually in the later decades of life and after years of insult, most commonly cigarette smoke. Here we show Tlr4–/– mice exhibited emphysema as they aged. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that TLR4 expression in lung structural cells was required for maintaining normal lung architecture. TLR4 deficiency led to the upregulation of what we believe to be a novel NADPH oxidase (Nox), Nox3, in lungs and endothelial cells, resulting in increased oxidant generation and elastolytic activity. Treatment of Tlr4–/– mice or endothelial cells with chemical NADPH inhibitors or Nox3 siRNA reversed the observed phenotype. Our data identify a role for TLR4 in maintaining constitutive lung integrity by modulating oxidant generation and provide insights into the development of emphysema.
Xuchen Zhang, Peiying Shan, Ge Jiang, Lauren Cohn, Patty J. Lee
Airway DCs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and interfering with their function could constitute a novel form of therapy. The sphingosine 1–phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 is an oral immunosuppressant that retains lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen, thus preventing lymphocyte migration to inflammatory sites. The accompanying lymphopenia could be a serious side effect that would preclude the use of FTY720 as an antiasthmatic drug. Here we show in a murine asthma model that local application of FTY720 via inhalation prior to or during ongoing allergen challenge suppresses Th2-dependent eosinophilic airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness without causing lymphopenia and T cell retention in the lymph nodes. Effectiveness of local treatment was achieved by inhibition of the migration of lung DCs to the mediastinal lymph nodes, which in turn inhibited the formation of allergen-specific Th2 cells in lymph nodes. Also, FTY720-treated DCs were intrinsically less potent in activating naive and effector Th2 cells due to a reduced capacity to form stable interactions with T cells and thus to form an immunological synapse. These data support the concept that targeting the function of airway DCs with locally acting drugs is a powerful new strategy in the treatment of asthma.
Marco Idzko, Hamida Hammad, Menno van Nimwegen, Mirjam Kool, Tobias Müller, Thomas Soullié, Monique A.M. Willart, Daniëlle Hijdra, Henk C. Hoogsteden, Bart N. Lambrecht